MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5 新たなアジア研究に向けて5号
15/112

ArticlesIII Manchu Dictionaries of the Qing dynastyFinally, we will discuss the dictionaries20 published during the Qing dynasty. As discussed earlier, the Qing dynasty often revised terminology related to political systems, and it is therefore essential that we get an accurate picture of this transitional process. An effective way to do this is to refer to the dictionaries published in the various time periods of the Qing dynasty. The most representative dictionary of the Qing period is the national language dictionary compiled by the state entitled Qing wen jian.21 Qing wen jian was recompiled and republished a number of times during the Kangxi period and the Qianglong period, as listed below.○ han i araha manju gisun i buleku bithe (Chinese title: Yu zhi Qing wen jian), forty-seventh year of Kangxi (1708), with imperial preface.○ han i araha manju gisun i buleku bithe (Chinese title: Yu zhi Manzhou Menggu he bei Qing wen jian), fifty-six year of Kangxi (1717), with preface.○ nikan hergen i ubaliyambuha manju gisun i buleku bithe (Chinese title: Yin Han Qing wen jian), thirteenth year of Yongzheng (1735), with preface.○ emu be tacifi ilan be hafukiyara manju gisun i buleku bithe (Chinese title: Yi xue san guan Qing wen jian), eleventh year of Qianlong (1746), with preface.○ han i araha nonggime toktobuha manju gisun i buleku bithe (Chinese title: Yu zhi zeng ding Qing wen jian), thirty-sixth year of Qianlong (1771), with imperial preface○ han i araha manju monggo nikan hergen ilan hacin i mudan acaha buleku bithe (Chinese title: Yu zhi Man zhu Menggu Han zi san he qie yin Qing wen jian), forty-fifth year of Qianlong (1780), with imperial preface.○ han i araha duin hacin i hergen kamciha manju gisun i buleku bithe (Chinese title: Yu zhi si ti Qing wen jian), Qianlong period.○ han i araha sunja hacin i hergen kamciha manju gisun i buleku bithe (Chinese title: Yu zhi wu ti Qing wen jian), Qianlong period.It is worth noting that the process of these compilations ran parallel to the start and completion of the construction of the “summer palace mountain resort,” which was built north of the Great Wall and served as the seat of the Qing emperor in his capacity as Great Khan who reigns over the Fanbu (colonies or vassal tribes).The construction of the summer palace was initiated in the forty-second year of Kangxi (1703) by the fourth Qing emperor, Kangxi (temple name: Shengtsu), who unified Inner China. Thirty years later, in the eleventh year of Yongzheng (1733), Emperor Yongzheng changed the name of the province of Rehe to Chengde (virtue bearer) in honor of the benevolent rule of his father, the late emperor Shengtsu Kangxi, marking the origin of the name Chengde. During the reign of the sixth Qing emperor Qianlong (temple name: Gaozong) a great many ornate towers and palace buildings were constructed in the mountain resort, and the summer palace was finally completed in the fifty-fifth year of Qianlong (1790). As for the timeline of the Qing language survey compilations, it began with the publication of Qing wen jian, a glossary that explained the Manchu lexicon in Manchu and was affixed with an imperial preface dated 1708 (forty-seventh year of Kangxi). This publication was followed by Yu zhi Manzhou Menggu he bei Qing wen jian (Qianlong period), which showed terms in Manchu and Mongolian, Yin Han Qing wen jian (Yongzheng period), Yi xue san guan Qing wen jian (Qianlong period), and Yu zhi 011

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