MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5 新たなアジア研究に向けて5号
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zeng ding Qing wen jian (Qianlong period), which included terms in Manchu and Chinese, Yu zhi Man zhu Menggu Han zi san he qie yin Qing wen jian (Qianlong period), which included terms in Manchu, Mongolian, and Chinese, the Yu zhi si ti Qing wen jian (Qianlong period), which included terms in Manchu, Mongolian, Chinese, and Tibetan, and, the final of these publications, Yu zhi wu ti Qing wen jian (Qianlong period), which included terms in Manchu, Mongolian, Chinese, Tibetan, and Uighur. After the fifth publication, Yu zhi wu ti Qing wen jian, all subsequent publications were made after the construction of the entrance gate Lizhengmen (“Beautiful Portal”). The year when Lizhengmen was constructed, 1754, happened to be the year before the first dispatch of the Dzungar army, which marked the final stage of the formation of the Fanbu, and came only five years before the Qing dynasty reach its territorial apogee. Since territorial expansion had brought many different ethnic groups under Qing’s rule, in order to govern effectively, the translation of the various languages used in productions of official documents (the translation of Manchu into Chinese, the translation of Chinese into Manchu, etc.) became a very important matter. Accordingly, the Qing dynasty found it necessary to designate a range of expert translation institutions and specialist translation officials (called “bitieshi”). As an example of one of the systems related to the appointment of these translation officials, I have already mentioned that the Qing dynasty went so far as to set up the imperial translation examination, an imperial examination that was unique to the Qing dynasty. This imperial translation exam reflected the influence of Qing’s territorial expansion process, which encompassed the various peoples in Northeast China, Inner Mongolia, Inner China, Tibet, and Uighur, and the process by which the Qing dynasty coped with the situation of having to rule such an ethnically diverse set of subjects. We should therefore consider this series of language surveys to be the reflection of these two processes. In fact, after the Qianlong period, Qing wen jian began to appear as one of the required reading materials for those preparing to take the translation exam, and the Yu zhi zeng ding Qing wen jian affixed with an imperial preface dated the thirty-sixth year of Qianlong (stored in Gakushuin University, 334-1, photograph 2) came to be the definitive edition in the series.It should be noted that Yu zhi Qing wen jian, affixed with an imperial preface dated the forty-seventh year of Kangxi, is a very important publication in terms of understanding the situation of translation before the Qianlong period. It is significant in that it is the first of the Qing language surveys, but, aside from this, Yu zhi Qing wen jian was also the only Qing language survey to cite as sources some of the Manchu language versions of the Confucian Writings and veritable accounts in vocabulary commentaries; all subsequent Qing language surveys omitted these versions entirely. Up until now, the section containing the Manchu language versions of the Confucian Writings has been considered a major defect of Yu zhi Qing wen jian, and scholars have considered it largely worthless as evidence of the meanings of words in the dictionary. However, when considering the transition process of the Manchu language versions of the Confucian Writings throughout the Qing era, the Manchu language Confucian Writings section in Yu zhi Qing wen jian is a valuable resource that can help us understand more about the Manchu translations of the Confucian Writings prior to the Qianlong period, and as such it is something that is well worth examining.Aside from Qing wen jian, other Qing-era lexical publications from before the seventh year of Qianlong include the following: Da Qing quan shu, twenty-second year of Kangxi (1683) with a preface; Man Han tong wen quan shu, newly published in twenty-ninth year of Kangxi (1690); Tong wen hui ji, thirty-second year of Kangxi (1693) with a short preface; Xin ke Qing shu quan ji, thirty-eighth year of Kangxi (1699) with a preface; Man Han lei shu, thirty-ninth year of Kangxi (1700) new publication; Qing wen bei kao, sixty-first year of 012MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5

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