ArticlesWhen comparing these words to those of Kawakita, it is interesting to note that Nakane accepted the reality of not being able to reach Tibet in a much more candid way than Kawakita. For example, she never presumed to uphold Sikkim as a substitute or a representation of Tibetan society. However, this somewhat restrained approach ended up distancing Nakane from Tibetology. For Nakane, since field surveys were not possible there, Tibet was not an area for anthropological study. In fact, until later on, when the Tibetan exile community emerged and it became possible to survey them as “informants,” Nakane abstained from discussing Tibet.13As explained above, the difficulty in conducting surveys in Tibet proper drove anthropologists towards what they saw as the foremost substitutive field; the periphery of the Tibetan cultural sphere. While it is true that this trend had already begun during the 1950s, the trend continued to exist in anthropology for many years later, and it is this very trend that Samuel is referring to with the term Sherpa-centrism. This is not to say that all researchers of the Nepalese Himalayas headed to the Himalaya-dwelling ethnic Tibetan community in search of a substitute representation of Tibet.14 However, anthropologists who were credited for their surveys on the Tibetan community in the Nepalese Himalayas, including Graham Clark, Charles Ramble, Nancy Levine, and Hildegard Diemberger, all began their careers as researchers of Nepal, but they headed toward Tibet proper soon after an opportunity to conduct surveys in Chinese Tibet was open. It is therefore clear that the reason why these researchers headed to the Nepalese Himalayas was to seek a representative substitute for Tibet proper, where surveys were not possible.152 The Second Substitute Field: Tibetan Refugee CampsMany Tibetans became refugees after the Tibetan uprising of 1959 and the exile of the Dalai Lama. The significance of this fact is made clear from the context discussed above. In other words, by using the refugees emigrating from Tibet as informants, researchers were for the first time able to conduct intensive surveys of central Tibetan society with a higher level of accuracy without ever setting foot in Tibet proper. For this very reason, 1959 was an epochal year for Tibetan studies.16It is particularly important to note that during this time, China passed through the Anti-Rightist Movement and the Great Leap Forward and was on the threshold of the Cultural Revolution. Accordingly, sociology and anthropology lay dormant until 1978. This situation was another major cause of the greater raison d’être of external research.17 The new Tibetology, which was constructed based on listening surveys with Tibetan exiles, aimed to shed light on the actual state of the Dalai Lama regime which had continued to exist until 1959.18 In this sense, it corresponded to the Lhasa-centrism coined by Samuel. One of its key contributions was the research produced by Goldstein.During his years as a graduate student, from 1965 to 1967, Goldstein conducted an intensive listening survey in the Tibetan refugee camps in southern India. What is noteworthy about this survey is the fact that Goldstein was primarily interested in obtaining information about traditional Tibet before the exile, i.e. before 1959. In other words, Goldstein did not study the refugee community itself, but used the refugees as informants to obtain information about the past (at the time, it would have been the extremely near past). In short, Goldstein aimed to undertake ethnographic research based on a reconstruction of the past. Goldstein found a group of Tibetan refugees who had grown up in the same village (Samada village in the Btsang region) and attempted the reconstruction of their community in the refugee camp. This methodology allowed information to be crosschecked as there were multiple informants, enabling Goldstein to secure a much greater level of accuracy compared to more equivocal methodologies, where a number of exiles are called for interviews to study rooms in the U.S.19 With 019