Inter-Asia Research NetworksThough we did not have any time to discuss the segmentary state theory similar to that of mandala state, M. Mita referred in his report to the samanta system in India, which had been discussed extensively by Kulke, B. D. Chattopadhyaya and others. This reference gave rise to many questions in discussion; although the samanta system functioned as an important state integration system in early medieval time, did it continue to function in a later period, say in the 13th century? Was it applicable to the states in South India too, particularly those in the Tamil country? The distinction between the concept of samanta and its actuality was also discussed. Further studies are required on these points. Mita also referred to the concept of chakravartin in combination with the samanta system. Participants shared the understanding that the chakravartin concept was accepted, but the samanta system did not work in Southeast Asia.4) Sufis, sultans and commercial network in the 13th to the 16th centuries.In Session 1 on the first day, S. Kumar described a change in relationship between the sultan (political power) and Sufi saints (Chishtis) by taking up malfuzat (table talks), which record the teachings of Nizam al-Din Auliya (late 13th century) and Gesu Draz (early 15th century). Early Sufi saints kept a distance from the political powers, but later in the 15th century relations between the two became much closer as Sufism gained power among common people. One of the reasons for this can be attributed to the Timur invasion at the end of the 14th century, but post presentation discussion focused on the socio-economic cause and the relation Islamicisation had with vernacularisation of the society. The above point relates to the topic studied by P. B. Wagoner who discussed Sanskritisation of ‘Persian cosmopolis’ by pointing out the spread of Vijayanagar (Hindu) coins in the sultanates of northern Deccan. The interaction of the two civilisations represented by Sanskrit cosmopolis and Persian cosmopolis respectively has so far been studied in relation to elite culture of the state, but Wagoner’s study extended it to the activities of diverse social groups and the market inviting further discussion on the vernacularisation of the state rule. As for the Islamicisation of Southeast Asia, M. Hirosue studied the case of Pasai state established in the northern Sumatra in the 13th century. The ruler of the state living in the port-city, which was connected to its hinterland through rivers, accepted Islam. The hinterland provided agricultural products for the maintenance of city dwellers and forest goods for export in the East-West maritime trade. Although Islamicisation of the port-city can be explained by the development of trade network built by Muslim merchants, the point whether hinterland people accepted Islam or not invited discussion. K. Nishio examined Sejarah Melayu, a court history of Melaka state, and emphasized the remnants of Malay traditional elements in the relationship between the ruler and people as a substratum under the Islamic surface for some centuries after the Islamisation of the state in the 14th century. According to Nishio only in the 17th century, when Sejarah Melayu was written, did a change occur. Afterwards Islamic norm became more substantial in state rule defining a just ruler and the guiding principle of his governance. Some of the points that came up in the discussion included the post-Tamerlane change in the world economy system and the start of the age of commerce in Southeast Asia.In relation to the emergence of Muslim state and Islamisation/Islamicisation of the society, there are two interrelated points that invited discussion. One was the difference in the roles played by ulamas and Sufi saints in the establishment of Muslim state, particularly the relation between each of them and the people and sultan. The other was the way in which commercial network and merchants Islamised/Islamicised the people and their rulers facilitating the formation of a Muslim state. The discussion was focused on the difference between South 053