MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5 新たなアジア研究に向けて5号
59/112

Inter-Asia Research Networkscompilation of Nizam al-Din Auliya’s teachings was produced by his disciple Amir Hasan Sijzi and titled the Fawa’id al-Fua’ad or ‘Morals for the Heart’. Similarly, Sayyid Muhammad Akbar Husaini a descendent and disciple of Gesu Daraz produced the Jawami al-Kalim, a compilation of his master’s dicta.I have anchored my study around these two texts to provide greater detail and precision in my study of the development of Sufism through the thirteenth and fourteenth century. But this analysis would remain incomplete without a precise grounding of these textual interventions in the life and polity of the Delhi Sultanate. My paper therefore moves chronologically identifying particular themes over the two centuries that highlight the changing contexts of the two texts. I use the materials from the two texts located at different moments in time to enlarge on the political and social transitions in the Sultanate. It is this larger context that explains the shifts in the relationship between Sultans and Sufi Shaykhs and many of the unique characteristics of these malfuzat. Unlike much of the historiography on the subject, I do not therefore ascribe changes within Sufism, or the relationships of the preceptors to their milieu, solely to the individual personalities of the various protagonists, or their intellectual and spiritual predilections. This shifts the analysis from the otherwise circumscribed study of ‘great(er)’ and ‘lesser’ Sultans or more and less mystically adept Shaykhs.The first section of my paper reviews the social backgrounds of the political participants in the early Delhi Sultanate and develops a more precise sense of the body of people who were involved in developing the nature and content of the praxis of Islam. It is interested in discovering the debates, the politics and the agents involved in the formation of the Muslim community in the early thirteenth century. As my paper argues there was considerable contestation amidst political elites, even as they relied upon the shari‘a-minded exponents of Islam, the ‘ulama, to create the semblance of an exclusive, monolithic community of Muslims. This was often a violent, severely contested intervention in the lives of the Muslim population, a disciplining which was often borne by Sufis, particularly those with antinomian inclinations. This coercion lasted through most of the thirteenth century and its coercive intent certainly left many military elites extremely unpopular while discrediting their ‘ulama collaborators.The second section studies developments from the end of the thirteenth century into the mid-fourteenth century when the first mystical fraternities intruded from the frontier tracts into Delhi and the core territories of the Sultanate. Through the 1280s disciples of Sufi preceptors arrived in Delhi from Multan, Ajudhan and Kara. It is in this context that Nizam al-Din Auliya established his Sufi hospice in Delhi. Integral to the success of his fraternity and its organisational framework was the production of a textual manual that could broadcast the teachings of its master. The Fawa’id al-Fua’ad achieved this in an exemplary manner. It communicated the teachings of Nizam al-Din Auliya to novitiates who could not attend his discourses or needed a textual guide to which they could continually refer. As I develop in this section, the malfuzat was a vital aspect in the creation of the ‘Way’ of the Sufi master, a method of Sufi instruction, a tarika with a unique, authoritative chain [silsila] of Figure A Contemporary Photograph of the Shrine of Nizam al-Din Auliya with the Adjoining Red Sandstone Mosque, Reputedly of Khalaji Provenance. [Source: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1200_1299/nizamuddin/nightphotos/nightphotos.html]055

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