nonpareil preceptors. Such a text was also served to counter the hegemonistic ambitions of Sultanate temporal authority and the challenge of rival Sufi preceptors.The third section of the paper studies the malfuzat, maktubat [letters] and tazkirat [biographical digests] produced in the mid fourteenth century to bring out the successful organisational strategies that both, consolidated and expanded the Chishti and, to a lesser extent, other tarikas as well. The wide dispersal of Sufi influence transpired in this phase and it attracted the hostility of ambitious Sultans of Delhi. The two processes were intertwined̶as the bureaucratic abilities of the Sultanate expanded so too did the ambit of influence of the Chishti and other mystical fraternities and the content of their relationship had particular spa-tial and temporal contingencies.The fourth section studies Gesu Daraz’s Jawami al-Kalim produced at the end of the fourteenth century when the Sufi preceptor and the Delhi Sultan were both forced to leave Delhi and search for new patrons in the wake of Timur’s invasion and the sack of the Sultanate capital. But what was critical at this time was the impact of the accumulative experience of migration, settlement and history that was reflected in the variant responses of the Sufis and Sultans. Quite in contrast to the Sultans, Sufi preceptors could access robust genealogies ̶they belonged to lineages of mystical instructors, their spiritual prominence brought them social power and, for some, considerable wealth. Many of them had established hospices and married into distinguished households, and most important of all, they had histories that consolidated their social prestige. In the Jawami al-Kalim, an unusual malfuz of an old master forced into itinerancy, this loss was transfixed as nostalgia for a glorious world that was lost. Through an assiduous effort to link himself with his past world and an undiminished spiritual charisma, Gesu Daraz broadcast his unequalled genealogy to the parvenu temporal lords of his age. Gesu Daraz mimed his predecessors in underlining that the continued prosperity of the Sultans and the stability of the temporal order were contingent upon the presence of the spiritual charisma of the Sufi masters. But it also led to the formulation of relationships that were very different from those apparent a century earlier.As I point out in my conclusion, in contrast to the conflict, competition and accommodation that marked relationships between the Sufis and the Sultans over the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the following two centuries century marked the unambiguous triumph of the Sufi Shaykh. The shifts, however, were not a consequence of a change in the ‘balance of power’ between discrete protagonists. The transitions were noticeable because Islam, Muslim society and Sultanate polity had altered dramatically in the intervening centuries, a transition that was palpable in the form and content of the two malfuzat around which the paper is organised.BibliographySelected Primary Sources‘Abd al-Haqq Mπhaddis Dehlaw∏, AkhbΣr al-AkhyΣr, translated into Urdu by Maulana Muhammad Fazil, (Karachi: Madina Publishing Company, n.d.).Am∏r Hasan Sijz∏, FawΣ’id al-Fu’Σd, edited by Khwaja Hasan Thani Nizami Dihlawi, (Delhi: Urdu Academy, 1990).Am∏r Khwurd, Siyar al-AwliyΣ’, edited by Sayyid Mahdi Ghuri, (Lahore: Markaz-i Tahqiqat-i Farsi Iran wa Pakistan, no. 23, Mu’assi-yi Intisharat-i Islami, 1978).HΣmid Fazl AllΣh JamΣl∏, Siyar al-‘≠rif∏n, (Delhi: Rizwi Press, 1311/1893).Ham∏d Qalandar, Khair al-MajΣlis, edited by Khaliq A. Nizami, (Aligarh: Department of History, Aligarh University Press, 1959).Ibn Battπta, Rehla, translated by Agha Mahdi Husain, (Baroda: Oriental Institute, Gaekwad Oriental Series, no. 122, 1976 reprint).056MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5