Inter-Asia Research Networks‘IsΣm∏, Futπh al-SalΣt∏n, edited by A. S. Usha, (Madras: University of Madras, 1940).MinhΣj-i SirΣj JπzΣjn∏, TabaqΣt-i NΣsir∏, edited by Abdul Hay Habibi, (Kabul: Anjuman-i Tarikh-i Afghanistan, 1963–4, 2 vols.); translated by H. G. Raverty, (Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation, 1970 reprint, 2 vols.).Sharaf al-D∏n Maner∏, The Hundred Letters, translated by Paul Jackson, s.j., (New York: Pau-list Press, 1980).ZiyΣ’al-Din Baran∏, Ta’r∏kh-i F∏rπz ShΣh∏, edited by Sayyid Ahmad Khan, (Calcutta: Bibliotheca Indica, 1860–2); edited by Shaykh Abdul Rashid, (Aligarh: Dept. of History, University Press, 1957).̶, FatΣwΣ-yi JahΣndΣr∏, edited by Afsar Saleem Khan, (Lahore: Research Society of Pakistan, University of the Punjab, 1972); translated by Mohammad Habib and Afsar U. S. Khan, The Political Theory of the Delhi Sultanate, (Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, n.d.).Selected Secondary SourcesAhmad, Aziz, “The Sufi and the Sultan in Pre-Mughal India”, Der Islam, vol. 38 (1962), pp. 142–53.Alam, Muzaffar, “Competition and Coexistence: Indo-Muslim Interaction in Medieval North India”, Itinerario, vol. 13 (1989), pp. 37–59.̶, The Languages of Political Islam, (Delhi: Permanent Black, 2004).Digby, Simon, “The Sufi Shaikh as a Source of Authority in Medieval India”, Purusartha (Islam and Society in South Asia), vol. 9 (1986), pp. 57–77.̶, “The Sufi Shaikh and the Sultan: A Conflict of Claims to Authority in Medieval India”, Iran, vol. 28 (1990), pp. 71–81.Ernst, Carl, Eternal Garden: Mysticism, History, and Politics at a South Asian Sufi Center, (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992).Kumar, Sunil, The Emergence of the Delhi Sultanate, (Delhi: Permanent Black, 2007).Nizami, Khaliq A., Some Aspects of Religion and Politics in India during the Thirteenth Century, (Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli, 1974 reprint).The Rise of Muslim Coastal States in North SumatraHIROSUE Masashi(Research Fellow, Toyo Bunko; Professor, College of Arts, Rikkyo University)North Sumatra played a significant role in international maritime trade as a production base for precious forest and mineral products from early centuries, and pepper from early modern times. Contacts with the outside world through trade helped to develop coastal entrepôts exporting products from the interior. North Sumatran port cities connecting the Indian Ocean and the Malacca Strait became not only highly cosmopolitan urban areas, but, at the same time, established firm ties with their hinterlands from early on. The linkage between the Figure 1 Muslim Funerary Monuments at Pasai. Photograph by M. Hirosue.Figure 2 Rice Cultivation on the Shore of Lake Toba. Photo-graph by M. Hirosue.057