Inter-Asia Research NetworksThe royal chronicles of Barus Ulu and Barus Hilir claim that both royal families had firm connections not only with the regions providing forest products, but also with productive rice-cultivating regions. The royal chronicle of Barus Ulu says that the royal family originated from the Toba Batak clan residing on the shore of Lake Toba. Another Barus Hilir chronicle claims that the first ruler, Sultan Ibrahim, a descendant of the royal family of Pagaruyung in central Sumatra, traveled not only to the inner Toba Batak regions, which produced camphor and benzoin, but also to Bakkara, a rice-cultivating region on the shore of Lake Toba, before he established himself at Barus. The shores of Lake Toba were some of the most fertile rice cultivating regions in Sumatra. Barus itself also relied on foodstuffs from the hinterland.The center of authority in hinterland was crystallized as the coastal principalities became prosperous. Barus became a busy and flourishing coastal city attracting Indian, Persian, and Arab merchants at the beginning of the 16th century. The royal chronicle of Barus Hilir claims that Ibrahim was married in Bakkara to a local girl who was converted to Islam and that he ordered the people to regard her coming child as his deputy to be called Singa Maharaja. Singa Maharaja was addressed among the Toba Batak people as Si Singa Mangaraja. The people revered him as an incarnation of Batara Guru, possessing the supernatural power to control of the growth of rice and the supply of the water essential to its cultivation. This holy figure was also revered by the people under the influence of Barus Ulu and by the Batak deputies installed by the Sultan of Aceh.The coastal rulers, such as those of Barus and Aceh, needed such a divine authority in order to keep stable relations between the coastal principalities and their hinterlands. The Pagaruyung royal house in the Minangkabau highland and the Gayo deputies installed by Aceh around Lake Tawar in north Sumatra also need to be examined vis-à-via their roles in maintaining relationships between port cities and hinterlands. Although the research so far has tended to interpret such hinterland authorities as culturally different from Islamic coastal societies, it must be noted that hinterland cultures and societies including their image of “Sumatra” developed when Pasai, Aceh, Barus, and other Muslim coastal principalities endeavored to establish trade networks between the East and the West and claimed to lead Islamic centers.BibliographyBraginsky, V. I. 1993. The System of Classical Malay Literature, Leiden.Brown, C. C. ed. 1970. Sejarah Melayu or Malay Annals, Kuala Lumpur, London, New York and Melbourne.Cortesão, A. ed. and trans. 1944. The Suma Oriental of Tomé Pires, vol. 1, London.Drakard, J. ed. 1988. Sejarah Raja-Raja Barus, Jakarta and Bandung.Fatimi, S. Q. 1963. IslΣm Comes to Malaysia, Singapore.Guillot, C. ed. 1998. Histoire de Barus: Le site de Lobu Tua, 2 vols., Paris.Guillot, C. and L. Kalus, 2008. Les monuments funéraires et l’histoire du Sultanat de Pasai à Sumatra, Paris.Hall, K. R. 1985. Maritime Trade and State Development in Early Southeast Asia, Sydney and Wellington.Hill, A. H. ed. 1960. “Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai” Journal of the Malay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. 33, part 2.Hirosue, M. 2009. “The Role of Local Informants in the Making of the Image of “Cannibalism” in North Sumatra”, in From Dis-tant Tales: Archaeology and Ethnohistory in the Highlands of Sumatra, edited by D. Bonatz, J. Miksic, J. D. Neidel and M. L. Tjoa-Bonatz, Newcastle upon Tyne.Johns, A. H. 1961. “Sufism as a Category in Indonesian Literature and History”, Journal of Southeast Asian History, vol. 2, no. 2.Jones, R. ed. 1987. Hikayat Raja Pasai, Petaling Jaya.McKinnon, E. E. 2011. “Continuity and Change in South Indian Involvement in Northern Sumatra: The Inferences of Archaeological Evidence from Kota Cina and Lamreh”, in Early Interactions between South and Southeast Asia: Re-flections on Cross-Cultural Exchange, edited by P. Manguin, A. Mani and G. Wade, Singapore.059