Mills, J. V. G. ed. and trans. 1970. Ma Huan Ying-yai Sheng-lan: ‘The Overall Survey of the Ocean’s Shores’ Cambridge.Milner, A. C., E. E. McKinnon, and Tengku Luckman Sinar S. H. 1978. “A Note on Aru and Kota Cina”, Indonesia, no. 26.Perret, D. and H. Surachman 2011, “South Asia and the Tapanuli Area (North-West Sumatra): Ninth-Fourteenth Centuries CE”, in Early Interactions between South and Southeast Asia: Reflections on Cross-Cultural Exchange, edited by P. Manguin, A. Mani and G. Wade, Singapore.Reid, A. 2005. An Indonesian Frontier: Acehnese & Other History of Sumatra, Leiden.Subbarayalu, Y. 2002. “The Tamil Merchant-Guild Inscription at Barus, Indonesia: A Rediscovery”, in Ancient and Medieval Commercial Activities in the Indian Ocean: Testimony of Inscriptions and Ceramic-sherds: Report of the Taisho University Research Project 1997–2000, edited by N. Karashima, Taisho University, Tokyo.Teuku Iskandar. 1958. De Hikajat Atjéh, The Hague.Melaka: A Model of Malay Islamic StatesNISHIO Kanji(Research Fellow, Toyo Bunko; Professor, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Humanities, National Defense Academy of Japan)In analyzing Islamic development in early modern Southeast Asia, other studies have paid attention to [a], [b], and [c] as shown below. On the other hand, as mentioned in [d], several arguments have been made on the pre-colonial Malay political culture.[a] Melaka Model: An Exemplary ModelMajor Malay port-polities in Melaka Strait area played a very significant role in developing Islamic civilization within Insular Southeast Asia. In this period, Pasai, Melaka, Aceh, Johor, and Riau-Johor (or Johor-Riau), in this order, each grew to be the center of trade and functioned as the center of Islamic learning in Southeast Asia. In the second half of the 15th century, Melaka was an exemplary model of the Islamic state to the neighboring states and also contributed much to the spread of Islam through its trading network to the eastern islands like Java and Borneo.[b] Aceh Model: Another Exemplary ModelFrom the second half of the 16th century to the first half of the next century, Aceh became a center of Islamic learning and wished to achieve a more Islam-oriented state. While inviting Muslim scholars (of both foreign and local origin) who studied in West Asia, Aceh appointed them to top posts (Syaif al-Islam) in the Islamic administration. Those who held such posts played an active role in Islamic administration of Aceh, which supplied the neighboring Islamic states with a new exemplary model. This Aceh model was more Islamic-oriented than the Melaka model.[c] The 17th Century: A Turning Point in the History of Islam in Southeast AsiaFigure A Scene after the Bersiram Tabal (bathing) Ceremony on the Panca Persada Stage during the Enthronement Ceremony of Perak in Malaysia, Dated December 11, 1985. [Source: Jawatankuasa Panel Penulis Khas 1986: 43]060MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5