MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5 新たなアジア研究に向けて5号
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The political contract states that the people do not have to keep their terms of the political contract any longer. Nonetheless, the same political contract does not allow the people to commit treason against the zalim rulers, since it mentions that Allah will punish those who depart from the terms of the contract. This interpretation accords with the part of Sejarah Melayu on the decline and downfall of Melaka. Yet, such a view of the Sejarah Melayu is more conservative than the answer given in the Taj al-Salatin. A more radical answer to the question is found only in the Malay document of the 18th century.[4] Divinity of Malay Rulers (Daulat)Only Islam is considered as the source of supernatural power in the Sejarah Melayu. In this work, those who possess supernatural power are limited two groups of people. One is the Saiyid or Syarif people who ascend the Prophet Muhammad and the other is the Melaka rulers who ascend Raja Iskandar D’zulkarnain (Alexander of the Two Horns, a legendary hero who was active in spreading Islam). While the supernatural power of the Saiyid or Syarif people is mentioned through the Malay word sumpah, which also means “oath”, a Malay word of Arabic origin, daulat is used for that of Melaka rulers. Although the idea of supernatural power itself dates back to pre-Islamic (or pre-Hindu) local society, such a pre-Islamic view is reformed to accord with Islamic values. It is noteworthy that the good genealogies or pedigrees (bangsa) functioned as significant elements in the Malay view on supernatural powers. These facts account for the difference in the concept of divinity between the Malay and the Javanese.[5] Enthronement CeremonyThe Sejarah Melayu mentions the panca persada (a nine-layered stage for the enthronement ceremony), but does not describe the Malay enthronement ceremony in detail. According to the cases of Perak and Negeri Sembilan in the latter half of the 20th century, however, it is probable that the main events of the Malay enthronement ceremony have basically made up of two parts since the Melaka period. Whereas the second part (Pertabalan or Menurungkan Daulat ceremony) is characterized by Islamic factors and is done inside the court, the first part (Bersiram Tabal or Bersiram ceremony) is done on the panca persada outside the court, and looks like the abhiseka ceremony of Indian origin. If this is correct, it is reasonable to think that the ceremony of Indian origin has still remained as a sub-system in Islamized Malay enthronement ceremony. In that sense, the Malay view on supernatural powers has links to both Hindu and Islamic factors.[6] Role of Ulama (Muslim scholars)The Sejarah Melayu suggests that those ulama that bore titles of either maulana (a title for brilliant Islamic scholars) or makhdum (an honorific for Islamic intellectuals) were invited to the court as religious teacher or adviser, and the sultans and the dignitaries (orang besar) deepened their understanding on Islam under their guidance. This work also describes some activities of the katib (scribe) and the kadi (judge of Islamic court). However, the roles of ulama in the administration of Melaka are not so clearly indicated in the work. On the other hand, the ulama played very active roles in administration in the Aceh model.[7] Concept of NamaThis concept is not clearly seen in the Sejarah Melayu, while the Hikayat Hang Tuah often mentions it. Since the edition of that work is traced back to around the early 18th century, the concept grew to be popular in 062MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5

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