Inter-Asia Research Networksespecially interesting as the coins were minted by the state and represented the state’s authority, but they also must have catered to the people’s needs and preferences. Professor Wagoner points out that shroffs (bankers and money changers) melted down the Bahmani coins and remade them into Vijayanagara coins in response to the needs and preferences of their customers. Rather than understanding the process in terms of ‘Sanskritizing the Persian cosmopolis’, it is perhaps necessary to conceptualize the complex process of vernacularization and re-univeralization of the culture of rulership so that the process of interaction between Sanskrit and Persianate cosmpolis can be grasped in a more comprehensive manner. This is a suggestion as I think Professor Wagoner’s wide perspective allows us to look at the complicated inter-cosmopolis process taking into account not only the role of the state but also the diverse agents and social groups in the society and the market. I would like to attempt to provide two general observations about the historical changes in 13th to 16th century South Asia and Southeast Asia. First, the 13th and 14th centuries saw the increasing connection of various regions. The deeds of Zhingis Khan and Tamerlane of course had wide ranging impacts. The 13th and 14th centuries can be seen as a formative period of Islamicate world system in Southeast Asia and the further establishment of Islamicate or Persianate cosmopolis in South Asia. The 15th–16th centuries may be seen as the period of the deepening of Islamicate world system and its vernacularization in both areas. It was through the penetration of the Islamicate technologies and institutions of governance and market into the local society in 15th and 16th centuries that made possible the fuller utilization of human and natural resources and the transregional trade of the products.Secondly, I would like to discuss the different forms of Islamicate system that developed in South Asia and Southeast Asia. In the case of South Asia, the caste system in the sense of division of labor and allotment of shares based on hereditary entitlements played an important role. This kind of system was suitable for managing diverse populations living together in tightly knit complementary relationships in agrarian society. In the case of India, Islamicization had to adapt to the existence of vast and strong vernacular agrarian society through Islam as the provider of power for agrarian fertility, and also as a set of technologies that provided the means to administer localities and commercially connect them. In the case of Southeast Asia, we note that the port cities and the coastal rulers acted as a hub that connected the external forces and indigenous vernacular societies. It seems Islamicization was vital in establishing trade networks, but the politico-ritual mechanism of ruler-people relationship or inland social structure only changed very gradually with Islamicization. We might see the process of Islamicization not simply as conversion but as a gradual process of adopting a civilization and making it compatible with the vernacular society.Session 2 Early Polity and Society as Revealed from Archaeological and Literary Evidence Construction of Linyi Citadels: The Rise of Early Polity in VietnamYAMAGATA Mariko(Project Professor, Center for Cultural Resource Studies,Institute of Human and Social Sciences, Kanazawa University)In studying the early history of Southeast Asia, the advancement of archaeological research over the last few 069