MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5 新たなアジア研究に向けて5号
75/112

Inter-Asia Research Networksto export to the trade networks, and imported exotic goods like beads. The Sa Huynh culture declined through the first century CE, and their distinctive mortuary tradition disappeared by the end of this century. The local inhabitants are likely to have experienced rapid transformation of their society towards the rise of the first polity.At the walled citadel of Tra Kieu, identified as the old capital of Linyi, a Vietnamese, British, and Japanese collaborative team, including the author, carried out excavations from 1993 to 2000. The lowest layers of Tra Kieu, as well as the site called Go Cam situated 3.5km southeast of Tra Kieu, yielded roof tiles belonging to a Chinese style that was widespread in East Asia. The presence of roof tiles is significant because they indicate the existence of solid wooden buildings supporting heavy roofs, generally used as religious temples, administrative centers, royal palaces, and so on. Unexpected discoveries at Go Cam included various Chinese Han style artifacts. Among them, the most significant find was a fengni, a piece of clay seal with an imprint of Chinese characters transcribed as Huangshen shizhe zhang (Seal of the Envoy of the Yellow God). This suggests that the seal is related to Taoism and that people familiar with this Chinese belief system lived at Go Cam. The earliest phase of Tra Kieu, together with Go Cam, dates from the second century or even the late first century CE.Chinese influence reflected in material culture was prominent through the second and the third centuries CE. Intriguingly, the eaves tiles with human face decoration found at Tra Kieu show striking similarity to those found in Nanjing, the former capital of the Six Dynasties in China. In Nanjing, the human face tiles are thought to have been mainly associated with Wu Dynasty (222–280 CE). The discovery in Nanjing has led to the belief that the human faces depicted on eaves tiles originated in Wu, and were adopted by inhabitants of Tra Kieu. The human face tiles have been found at several citadel sites in central Vietnam, situated further south to Tra Kieu, including Co Luy in Quang Ngai province, Thanh Ho in Phu Yen province, and Thanh Cha in Binh Dinh province. These citadels should have been political centers developed locally in the respective coastal plains. Roof tiles were locally produced, but these citadels shared this particular style of eaves tiles. It is the author’s guess that sharing eaves tiles with human face decoration was a manifestation of an “alliance” of regional centers, recognized by Chinese as Linyi.Concerning Indic influence, Tra Kieu yielded spouted jars called kendis, thought to have originated in India and spread over Southeast Asia during the first millennium CE. A few pieces of Indian rouletted ware were found in both Tra Kieu and Go Cam, although the sporadic discoveries cannot be proof of the systematic interaction with India. Indic influence thus seems to have been limited to some categories of artifacts, including beads of the Sa Huynh culture, during a few centuries before and after the Common Era.In 2013, the author and the Southern Institute of Social Sciences in Ho Chi Minh City conducted excavations on the eastern rampart of Tra Kieu, aiming to verify the date and the structure. In addition, we expected to uncover the archaeological assemblage of the fourth century CE, the period approaching the visible Indianization, as the assemblage had not been confirmed yet at Tra Kieu. The trench across the rampart revealed two rows of brick with infill clay layers between them, reinforced by the outer structure of clay layers partly containing large pieces of broken bricks. A large number of roof tiles were uncovered, including eaves tiles with human face decoration. These tiles belonged to the same Chinese style as those found in the inner citadel. Two radiocarbon dates of charcoal samples associated with these tiles have been analyzed, suggesting the date range of the latter half of the third century to the fourth century CE. Did we encounter the structure and artifacts concurrent with the initial Indianization of Linyi, or even preceding it? The early occupation and construction of the Tra Kieu citadel reflect the early history of Linyi. It was the time approaching the initial stages of Indianization, but in fact, the archaeological findings demonstrate that the 071

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