Inter-Asia Research Networks1990.̶, The Making of Early Medieval India, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994. Kulke, Hermann, “The Early and the Imperial Kingdom: A Processural Model of Integrative State Formation in Early Medieval India”, idem (ed.), State in India 1000–1700, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 233–262.Morrison, Barrie M., Political Centers and Cultural Regions in Early Bengal, Tuscon: University of Arizona Press, 1970. Yamazaki, Toshio, “Some Aspects of Land-Sale Inscriptions in Fifth and Sixth Century Bengal”, Acta Asiatica, vol. 43, 1982, pp. 17–36.Formation of Cities and State of DvaravatiNITTA Eiji(Professor, Faculty of Law, Economics and Humanities, Kagoshima University)Dvaravati refers to the early polities from 6th to 9th centuries in Thailand. The name means “Gate to the port in Sanskrit. Although some Chinese texts, such as “the New History of Tang” and other histories, and Chinese pilgrims’ documents, refer to the existence of the Dvaravati Kingdom, there was no archaeological evidence to prove its existence until two silver coins, inscribed in Pallava letters with “sridavaravati svarnapunya” meaning “the merit of the Lord Dvaravati”, were first found at the Buddhist temple Wat Phra Phrathon in Nakhon Pathom in 1943. This type of coins was distributed in the west Chao Phraya River basin, such as U-Thong, Ban Khu Muang, and Dong Khon (Saraya 1999, 24). This area seems to have been the center of Dvaravati. I have divided Dvaravati into two categories: one composed of port polities and inland cities in a wider sense, and another of port polities along the Gulf of Thailand in a narrower sense.In the first century B.C.E., many kinds of regalia and commodities were traded on these net-works in the inland and South China Sea. For example, from the 4th century B.C.E, bronze drums were distributed in wider areas in Southeast Asia, from North Vietnam to the Moluccas and the west end of the New Guinea Island. Additionally, double-animal-headed earrings and three-knobbed earrings of the Sa-Huynh culture in Vietnam were distributed along the coastal areas of South China Sea, and nephrite stones as the raw material for these earrings were brought from East Taiwan to Southeast Asia (Iizuka 2010, 61–2). On the east coast of Kra Isthmus of Malay Peninsula, many goods of Chinese and Indian origin were found at the site of Khao Sam Keo (Bellina-Pryce 2006, 281–2), including bronze mirrors, a bronze seal, potsherds, and jade pendants of the West Han Dynasty. Furthermore, stone seals with engraved names in South Indian letters, dating between the first century B.C.E. and the first century C.E., and many kinds of glass beads from India were found. Rouletted wares were also distributed in west Java and the northern coast of Bali. Immigrants from India settled in Southeast Asia and thereafter the technique of making glass beads was introduced.The maritime trade routes between India and Southeast Asia passed Kra Isthmus. Indian mer-chants arrived at the east coast of the peninsula, proceeded to the east coast, passing the isthmus by land, and then sailed into the Gulf of Thailand on board. The coastal area of the Gulf of Thailand is the nearest of the Indian merchants’ Figure Massive Stupa Khao Klang Noi near Sri Thep.077