destinations in Southeast Asia. This coastal area became one of the trade centers for Indian merchants, and cities and polities were formed here.Prehistoric villages in Thailand usually developed into citadels. At the site of Muang Fa Daet, a big moated city-site of the Dvaravati period in Kalasin Province Northeast Thailand, a cemetery dated after the 3rd century B.C.E. was excavated (Nitta 2005, 79). The overlap of the prehistoric village and the Dvaravati city shows its continuous occupation before the urbanization. As for the population concentration, moated sites in the basin of River Mun in Northeast Thailand are very important. Large moated villages were constructed before the Dvaravati period, to absorb the large population, from the 3rd century B.C.E. to the 3rd century C.E., according to the excavations of the sites Noen U Loke and Ban Non Wat along River Mun in Nakhon Ratchasima Province. Large moated sites along Mun River show that population concentration developed before the construction of cities in the Dvaravati period.Before the so-called Indianization of Southeast Asia and the commencement of Dvaravati, widespread trade networks were established in Southeast Asia and the populations concentrated at these intersections.When these internal trade networks were connected with the international ones, cities and early polities were formed in Southeast Asia. Port polities came up in the coastal areas as points of international trade, and inland villages grew into cities as supply centers of exported forest products. Villages between the coastal ports and the inland cities became relay station cities of these trade products.In the 6th century, Dvaravati cities such as Kubua and U-Thong were formed and flourished on the west coast of the Gulf of Thailand. They were encircled by the moats, and Buddhist temples and stupas were constructed inside and outside the cities. Pots containing silver coins were buried as offerings under the stupas. People were mainly devoted to Theravada Buddhism, but Hinduism was also accepted. In U-Thong, mukha-lingas and a copper plate were found, the latter dated to the 7th century and had in the engraving that Harshavarman, grandson of Ishanavarman, offered a palanquin, umbrellas, and musical instruments to Siva ling (Indrawooth 1999, 139; Saraya 1999, 26). Lingas and yonis were also found at Khok Changdin in the suburbs of U-Thong. Hinduism was widely accepted in other cities such as Sri Thep in Northeast Thailand and Don Si Maha Pot on the east coast of the Gulf. Mahayana Buddhism was also followed in the 8th century (Vallibhotama 1986, 231). A relief of an elephant that had 6 tusks, symbolized as Bodhisattva in the Jatakas, was found in Nakhon Chaisri. In the 7th century, Nakhon Chaisri, which is present-day Nakhon Pathom, became a center of Dvaravati polity. Some silver coins, engraved with the Pallava letters “sridvaravatisubarnapunya”, were found in and around Nakhon Chaisri. Another coin was found at Ban Khok, north of U-Thong. This is a rising sun-type silver coin that was engraved with “Lavapura”, where lava means Lavo, referring to present-day Lopburi, and pura means city. This coin shows that a city existed at Lavo. Rising sun-type coins were circulated as a way of settlement for trade in Dvaravati cities.Cities were formed on the trade routes between the coast and the inland. Sri-Thep was a local center that developed into a city. It is situated at a strategic point on the trade route between the central plain and northeast Thailand. In the beginning, Sri Thep was an encircled moated village. As trade between the coast and the inland became brisk, Sri Thep developed more and more, and its population grew. The city area of Sri Thep was enlarged eastwards to manage the population growth; this enlarged area was rectangular, influenced by Indian city planning. The community of Sri Thep also accumulated wealth, enough to construct a massive stupa nearby, Khao Klang Nok,. These massive stupas were constructed in competition with other rivals in U-Thong, Kubua, Thung Setthii (Petchaburi province), Nakhon Chaisri, Lavo and so on.Northeast Thailand was a supply center of forest products, which were exported in international trade. As a 078MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5