Town Prior to the Mid-13th Century Based on the Archaeological Evidence, Department of Archaeology, Silpakorn University.Ito, Toshikatu 2001, Cotton and Rising Sun Silver Coins̶Pyu, Dvaravati and Funan, in Ishii Y. and others eds., Iwanam Series History of Southeast Asia, vol. 1, pp. 199–226, Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. (In Japanese)Malleret, Louis 1962, L’Archéologie du Delta du Mékong, t.3, Paris: EFEO.Mahlo, Dietrich 2012, The Early Coins of Myanmar (Burma)—Messengers from the Past, Bangkok: White Lotus.Na Paknam, No 1981, The Buddist Boundary Markers of Thailand, Bangkok: Muang Boran.Nitta, Eiji 2000, On the Roman Gold Coins from Oc-eo, Journal of Archaeoloy, no. 454, pp. 1– (In Japanese)̶ 2005, Cities and Their Structures of Dvaravati, Japan Society for Southeast Asian Archaeology Monograph, no. 3, pp. 73–93. (In Japanese)̶ 2006, Small Hindu Polities and Ancient States in South East Asia—Cat Tien Site and Trade Networks between South East Asia, India and Iran, in Archaeology Center Kagoshima University ed., Archaeology from the South, pp. 275–287, Kagoshima: Kagoshima University. (In Japanese)̶ 2010, Origin and Distribution of Bronze Drums in Southeast Asia, in Kikuchi S. and Abe Y. eds., Maritime Route and Archaeology—From the Indochina Peninsula to Japan, pp. 91–107, Tokyo: Koshishoin. (In Japanese)̶ 2013, Thailand—Prehistory to Protohistory and Medieval Periods, in Nitta E. ed., Creation of Ancient and Medieval Archaeology of Southeast Asia, pp. 9–56, Kagoshima: Kagoshima Univeristy. (In Japanese)Quaritch Wales, H. G. 1966, Dvaravati: The Earliest Kingdom of Siam 6th to 11th Century A.D., London: Bernard Quaritch.Saraya, Dhida 1999, (Sri)Dvaravati—The Initial Phase of Siam’s History, Bangkok: Muang Boran.Vallibhotama, Srisakra 1986, Political and Cultural Continuities at Dvaravati Sites, in David G. Marr and A. C. Milner eds., Southeast Asia in the 9th to 14th Centuries, pp. 229–238, Institute of Southeast Asia, Singapore National University.At the Origins of Srivijaya: The Emergence of State and Cities in Southeast SumatraPierre-Yves MANGUIN(Professor Emeritus, École Française d’Extrême-Orient, France)Archaeological research in southeast Sumatra during the past two decades has brought to light a considerable amount of new data regarding the state formation process that resulted in the late 7th century CE foundation of the Srivijaya polity. Contrary to the process illustrated in early studies, but confirming Oliver Wolters’ “favoured coast” hypothesis, it is now apparent that proto-historic settlements, some of them possibly proto-urban, had developed in both the Jambi and Musi river basins centuries before the birth of Srivijaya. Sizeable settlement sites, in particular, have been identified at Karang Agung and Air Sugihan, downstream from Palembang, not far from the present day coastline, in a back mangrove environment. Some appear to have been referred to in Chinese sources in the 5th and 6th centuries and show signs of having adopted Indic religions and language. Based on the new data, it is possible now to offer a renewed view of the birth of Srivijaya. Various factors may have contributed to shape the new polity. Geographical determinism must be taken into consideration to explain the positioning of the new capital-city at Palembang, on firmer ground, much further upstream than the earlier Figure Balai Arkeologi Palembang Exca vations at Karang Agung, 2002: 3rd–4th Century AD Wooden Poles of Settlement Houses.080MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5