Inter-Asia Research Networkscoastal settlements. The spatial distribution and specialisation of excavated and surveyed sites within the modern city of Palembang also allows us to draw conclusions on the city-state status of Srivijaya’s capital. Ecological factors, such as the availability at short distance of productions valued as trade commodities (benzoin) and of food staples necessary to feed a large city (sago), must also have played a role when choices of location had to be made by the new political power. Buddhism has also no doubt played a major role in bringing together these various polities together under one paramount ruler, as witnessed by the early spatial distribution of 7th–8th century Buddha and Avalokitesvara statues in the Jambi and South Sumatra provinces, not to speak of the probable destruction of an earlier Vaishnava network.The image that emerges from these various considerations is that of a complex, long-term, multi-factor process of state formation, during which indianisation, urbanisation, religion and trade̶both inland and overseas̶played critical roles.BibliographyAgustijanto Indradjaya, 2012, “The Pre-Srivijaya Period on the Eastern Coast of Sumatra: Preliminary Research at the Air Sugihan Site”, in M. L. Tjoa-Bonatz, A. Reinecke and D. Bonatz (eds.), Connecting Empires and States. Selected Papers from the 13th Internationl Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeiologists. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press, vol. 2, pp. 32–42.Dalsheimer, Nadine, and Pierre-Yves Manguin, 1998, “Vis.n.u mitrés et réseaux marchands en Asie du Sud-Est: nouvelle données archéologiques sur le Ier millénaire apr. J.-C”, Bulletin de l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient, 85, pp. 87–123.Kulke, Hermann, 1986, “The Early and the Imperial Kingdom in Southeast Asian History”, in D. G. Marr and A. C. Milner (eds.), Southeast Asia in the 9th to 14th Centuries. Singapore, Canberra: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Australian National University, pp. 1–22.̶, 1991, “Epigraphical References to the ‘City’ and the ‘State’ in Early Indonesia”, Indonesia, 52, pp. 3–22.̶, 1993, ““Kadatuan Srivijaya”— Empire or Kraton of Srivijaya? A Reassessment of the Epigraphical Evidence”, Bulletin de l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient, 80(1), pp. 159–180.Koestoro, Lucas P., Pierre-Yves Manguin, and Soeroso, 1998, “Kota Kapur (Bangka, Indonesia): A Pre-Sriwijayan Site Reascertained”, in Pierre-Yves Manguin (ed.), Southeast Asian Archaeology 1994: Proceedings of the 5th Inter-national Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, Paris, October 1994. Hull: University of Hull, Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, vol. 2, pp. 61–81.Manguin, Pierre-Yves, 2000, “City-states and City-state Cultures in Pre-15th Century Southeast Asia”, in Mogens Herman Hansen (ed.), A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures. Copenhagen: Historisk-filosofiske Skrifter, The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, pp. 409–416.̶, 2002, “The Amorphous Nature of Coastal Polities in Insular Southeast Asia: Restricted Centres, Extended Peripheries”, Moussons, 5, pp. 73–99.̶, 2004, “The Archaeology of the Early Maritime Polities of Southeast Asia”, in Peter Bellwood and Ian C. Glover (eds.), Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. London: Routledge Curzon, pp. 282–313.̶, 2009, “Southeast Sumatra in Protohistoric and Srivijaya Times: Upstream-Downstream Relations and the Settlement of the Peneplain”, in D. Bonatz, J. Miksic, J. D. Neidel, et al. (eds.), From Distant Tales: Archaeology and Ethnohistory in the Highlands of Sumatra. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 434–484.Tri Marhaeni, 2006, “Pemukiman Pra-Sriwijaya di Pantai Timur Sumatera Kawasan Karangagung Tengah Kabupaten Musi Banyuasin, Provinsi Sumatera Selatan”, Berita Penelitian Arkeologi, 13, 44 p. (, accessed on 9 June 2006.)̶, 2011, “Pemukiman S´r∏vijaya di Kota Kapur, Pulau Bangka”, Kalpataru, Majalah Arkeologi, 20(2), pp. 30–46.Wolters, Oliver W., 1967, Early Indonesian Commerce: A Study of the Origins of Sri Vijaya. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.̶, 1979, “Studying Srivijaya”, Journal of the Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, 52(2), pp. 1–32.081