̶, 1983, “A Few Miscellaneous Pi-chi Jottings on Early Indonesia”, Indonesia, 36, pp. 49–64.̶, 1986, “Restudying Some Chinese Writings on Sriwijaya”, Indonesia, 42, pp. 1–42.Ideology and the State under the Early Medieval Pallavas and Colas: Puranic Religion and BhaktiR. CHAMPAKALAKSHMI(Former Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India)Ideology has been a major concern in recent studies on the State in South India, which have raised important questions on the nature of the state under the brahmanical polities (monarchies) of the early medieval Pallavas and the PΣn.d.yas (6th to the 9th centuries AD) leading to the development of a more enduring state system under the CΩ of Tanjavur (to the 13th centuries AD). The debate started by the characterization of the CΩl.a state as a peasant state and society and segmentary state with a ritual sovereignty and absence of a centralized administration has led to several empirical studies on the CΩl.a period, with a computerized statistical analysis of the rich inscriptions of the period and micro level studies of the institutions which sustained the CΩl.a state. Institutions such as the Brahmadeya and the Temple, which were regarded as legitimating institutions and as superordinate integrative forces have hence been an important part of such studies, which inevitably underlines the importance of the ideological base of such institutions.This paper attempts to trace the evolution of the ideology that created these institutional bases in the formation of the medieval south Indian state under the sub-regional polities of the Pallavas and PΣn.d.yas and the more powerful regional polity/state of the CΩ, during the 6th to the 13th centuries AD, which coincides with the emergence of a distinctive culture region i.e. the Tamil region.Rich in literary and epigraphic sources, the Tamil region provides evidence of three major periods of development of a pre-state to a state society from the early historical period to the early medieval period. These periods represent a tribal chiefly organization in the early stages i.e. 3rd century BC to the 3rd century AD gradually turning into a well organized Brahmanical polity in the three politico-cultural regions of Tamil¯akam in the 6th to 9th centuries AD and integration of these sub-regions into a larger state society under the CΩ, the most enduring among the peninsular states.The Pallavas and PΣn.d.yas adopted the BrΣhman.ical tradition and built up a complex set of ideological constructs, which represented an amalgam of three major strands of the BrΣhman.ical tradition, i.e. the Vedic, PurΣn.ic-ItihΣsic as the background for the evolution of a regional idiom of the Bhakti cult. Such an amalgam was imbibed by them from the northern regions like Deccan and Andhra, from which the Pallavas initially emerged as the first BrΣhman.ical polity to have created a territorial base in northern Tamil¯akam. Their early grants derived their format from the Iks.vΣku records, but more importantly relied on the yajña or sacrifice and land grants to BrΣ as their legitimating act, seeking a more stable territory in the Tamil country, replacing their military camps and migrations within Andhra. Gotra affiliations of the grantees were the main reference in these grants. Figure Aerial View of the Tanjavur TempleShowing the Cosmic Symbolism of the Royal Temple of Rajaraja I, Built in the Early 11th Century AD. Courtesy, Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), Chennai.082MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5