Inter-Asia Research NetworksThe later grants were not only bilingual but also coincide with the acquisition of a territorial base with KΣñci as the center of their power, from about the 5th–6th centuries AD. Genealogical connections, fabricated and derived from the PurΣn.ic Sπrya and Candra Vams´as became the major ideological construct, the yajña replaced by Vams´a (genealogy). At the same time the Brahmadeya with a PurΣn.ic temple also became a major part of the amalgam of the different strands in the BrΣhman.ical tradition. The expansive kingship now included many local chiefly and other powers southwards down to the Kaveri. Divine descent from Visnu and the associations with the epic and PurΣn.ic heroes are equally important. The PurΣn.ic worldview dominated the processes of the development of the nature of the state and society. The PΣn.d.yas placed greater accent on their Tamil Sangam connections and Agastya, although they also followed the BrΣhman.ical tradition in its developed form.The CΩl.a genealogies, on the contrary, were not entirely fabricated, although the Sπrya Vams´a connections were emphasised, but historical events and Sangam connections with rulers like KarikΣla for his flood control activities and Koccengan.n.Σn as the prolific temple builder now became more conspicuous among the ancestors of the VijayΣlaya line of “imperial” CΩ More important was their systematic promotion of the Bhakti ideology, not merely as derived from the Epic-PurΣn.ic tradition, but of the regional/vernacular idiom of bhakti as propagated by the Bhakti saints, the Σl-vΣrs and nΣyanΣrs. In effect the Bhakti tradition was built into the very processes of socio-economic developments like agrarian expansion and urbanization, institutional organization and restructuring of polity and society. It indeed increasingly influenced the expansionist activities, both agrarian and urban, through the pivotal role of the temple to Vis.n.u and S´iva, apart from the continued role of the Brahmadeya in such expansion in integrating not only the CΩl.a region, but also the regions of the erstwhile Pallava and PΣn.d.ya rulers and the Kongu nΣd.u through the concept of the man.d.alam, the new designation for these politico-cultural regions, apart from the newly conquered Ila man.d.alam or northern Srilanka. Within these man.d.alams the agraraian nΣ, kπr-r-ams, kΩt.t.ams and the larger val.anΣ together with the emergence of nagaram or market towns and larger urban centers like Tanjavur, Kancimanagaram and other temple towns were brought together into a web of economic and social activities and the restructuring of society within the Varna order. An entirely regional version of the caste system emerged enabling the accommodation or inclusivism of all socio-economic and ethnic groups and newly emerging occupational groups through a vertical paradigm, i.e. the Right and Left Hand castes in a tripartite scheme of social division and hierarchy. The direct royal patronage and promotion of the technological and constructional activities led to the culmination of the southern temple style i.e. the DrΣvid.a in the stupendous royal projects of TañjΣvπur and Gangaikon-d.acΩl.apuram with their cosmic structures and unique iconographic programme equating royalty with divinity, a near total identity of king with God through various iconic forms. Although both the PurΣn.ic S´aiva and Vais.n.ava sects were initially important in the building up of a temple/agrarian landscape coinciding with the sacred geography of the temples of the bhakti hymns, the consolidation of the S´aiva against the Vais.n.ava was achieved by the 11th century. Despite sectarian differences the sacred geography of the Vais.n.ava and the S´aiva bhakti tradition ultimately helped the creation of a map of the CΩl.a state and the Tamil macro-region.The CΩ were directly involved in the promotion of the Bhakti ideology through deliberate royal policy of collecting the hymns of the period from the 5th to the 9th centuries AD and later making them a part of the S´aiva canonical literature, along with the hagiographies, particularly of the S´aiva saints, allowing mat.ha or monastic organizations to take the custody of the Bhakti or Hymnal literature and other philosopjhical treatises influenced by the VedΣnta, which later created parallel structures of authority under religious/spiritual leaders. Initially co-ordinating with royalty in the temple administration and emergence of religious communities, built into such 083