parallel authority structures and relationships was an element of competition/rivalry, increasingly visible in the post-CΩl.a and Vijayanagara periods. Yet all these are traceable to the Bhakti ideology, to protect and promote which the resources of the CΩl.a period came to be over stretched. With the entry of alien powers and new military technologies pan-Indian ideological constructs became imperative/inevitable, which were incapable of preventing the gradual separation of the religious from the secular spheres of political and social life.BibliographyAravamuthan, T. G., “Early Pallavas and Kanchi”, Transactions of the Archaeological Society of South India, Silver Jubilee Volume, 1962, pp. 51–84.Balasubramaniam, S. R., Early Cola Temples, New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1971; Middle Cola Temples, New Delhi: Thomson Press India, 1975; Later Cola Temples, Madras: Mudgala Trust, 1979.Champakalakshmi, R., Trade, Ideology and Urbanization: South India 300 BC to AD 1300, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996, Chap.1, pp. 24–91.Chattopadhyaya, B. D., “Political Processes and Structure of Polity in Early Medieval India: Problems of Perspective”, Presidential Address, Ancient India Section, Indian History Congress, Burdwan, 1983.̶, The Making of Early Medieval India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994.Dirks, Nicholas B., “Political Authority and Structural Change in Early South Indian History”, Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 13, No. 2 (April–June, 1976): pp. 125–151.Eschmann, A. et al., ed., The Cult of Jagannath and the Regional Tradition of Orissa, New Delhi: Manohal, 1978.Hall, Kenneth R., Trade and Statecraft in the Age of the Colas, New Delhi, 1980.̶, “Peasant State and Society in Cola Times: A View from the Tiruvidaimarudur Urban Complex”, Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 18, Nos. 3 and 4: pp. 393–410.Hardy, Friedhelm, Viraha Bhakti: The Early History of Krishna Devotion in South India, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1983.Heitzman, Edward James, Gifts of Power; Temples, Politics and Economy in Medieval South India, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1985, Chaps. IV and V.̶, Gifts of Power: Lordship in an Early Indian State, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.Hoeber Rudolph, Susanne, “State Formation in Asia: Prolegomenon to a Comparative Study”, Presidential Address, The Jour-nal of Asian Studies, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Nov., 1987): pp. 731–774.Karashima, Noboru., South Indian History and Society: Studies from Inscriptions Ad 850–800, Delhi, 1984.̶, Towards a New Formation, South Indian Society under Vijayanagara Rule, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1992.̶, History and Society in South India: The Colas to Vijayanagara, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001,̶, South Indian Society in Transition: Ancient to Medieval, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2009.Kulke, Herman, “Fragmentation and Segmentataion versus Integration? Reflections on the Cocepts of Indian Deudalism and the Segmentary State in Indian History”, Studies in History, Vol. 4 (1982): pp. 237–263.̶, Kings and God: State Formation and Legitimation in India and Southeast Asia, New Delhi: Manohar, 1993.̶, The State In India, 1000–1700, Oxford in India Paper Backs, Themes in Indian History, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.Minakshi, C., Administration and Social Life under the Pallavas, Madras, 1977.Nilakanta Sastri, K. A., Studies in Cola History and Administration, Madras: University of Madras, 1932.̶, The Colas, 2nd ed., Madras: University of Madras, 1955. Sivathamby, K., Tamilil Ilakkiya Varalaru, Madras, 1988, pp. 59–62. (in Tamil)Spencer, G. W., “Heirs Apparent: Fiction and Function in Chola Mythical Genealogies”, Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 21, No. 4 (1984): pp. 415–432.̶, “Religious Networks and Royal Influence in Eleventh Century South India”, Journal of the Economic and Social His-tory of the Orient, Vol. 12, Pt. 1 (1969): pp. 42–57.084MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5