MODERN ASIAN STUDIES REVIEW Vol.5 新たなアジア研究に向けて5号
93/112

Inter-Asia Research Networksrebel prince and driving out the Mongols. On his accession to the throne, Wijaya took the name Kr.tarΣjasa, which incorporated parts of his SinghasΣri predecessors’ names, thus establishing Majapahit as the rightful successor to SinghasΣri. The kingdom reached its apogee in the mid-fourteenth century under the reign of king RΣjasanagara (1350–1389). Its sphere of influence extended to the coastal areas of Sumatra, Kalimantan, and eastern parts of Indonesia, even though its area of direct control was limited mostly to eastern Java, Madura, and Bali. In its court, the clergy practiced S´aivism, Vaishnavism, and Buddhism, and literary works were produced by poets in Old Javanese based on literary traditions of Indian origin. This is remarkable considering the fact that the fourteenth century saw the rapid expansion of Theravada Buddhist Ayutthaya at the expense of the Indianized Angkor in mainland Southeast Asia as well as the emergence of Islamic polities on the island of Sumatra.As a state ascending in the later stage of the “classical” period of Southeast Asian history, Majapahit also represents a major departure from the precedent Indianized states in Indonesia. For one thing, the deepening of social integration has been well studied, particularly from the economic and administrative points of view. This paper will focus on the cultural aspect of social integration by analyzing the contemporaneous literary work DW.The DW, formerly known as NΣgarakr.tΣgama, was a narrative work composed in 1365 by the court poet Mpu Prapañca, a contemporary of king RΣjasanagara. The work is, in essence, the poet’s eulogy to the king, also known under his infant name Hayam Wuruk. The text consists of 98 cantos or 384 stanzas, and is classified under the genre called kakawin, as it is written in a metric format of Indian influence. The DW, which means “description of the country”, is aptly named, as the poet recorded the life of people both in the court and the country during his visits to parts of east Java and attendance at royal functions.With regard to cultural aspects of social consolidation, there are two points of interest that will be dealt with in this paper. The first concerns the consolidation of the king’s power as the focal point of social consolidation, while the second concerns the king’s interaction with the common people through a number of royal tours and the annual court festival.In the narrative of the DW, the consolidation of the king’s power is represented in the form of a dynastic genealogy and the divinization of the king. During one of the royal tours in which he participated, the poet personally paid a visit to an aged Buddhist monk, who recounted the genealogy of the SinghasΣri–Majapahit kings, originating from RajΣsa, the first king of SinghasΣri, through Kr.tarΣjasa to the current king of Majapahit. The monk’s account, which includes eight royal persons including king RΣjasanagara’s mother as queen regent, is remarkable, because for the first time in the history of Indonesia, or even of Southeast Asia, a dynastic genealogy with this degree of depth and coherence was presented. Before Majapahit, the kingdom of Matram in central Java, in spite of its well-known designation of Sañjaya dynasty, in fact lacked a regular dynastic genealogy, whereas later kingdoms in east Java could not sufficiently develop one. In this sense, the DW may be considered to be a forerunner of court chronicles that emerged in the following centuries, including Thai Phongsawadan, Burmese Yazawin, Malay Hikayat, and Javanese Babad.The poet also describes king RΣjasanagara as a manifestation of several deities. It must be noted that his divinization is not limited to a particular deity, as the king is described as the supreme being in more than one denominations. Nevertheless, obviously S´iva and the Buddha were considered the most important, clearly demonstrated in a scene of the annual court festival where two groups of S´aivite and Buddhist priests were actively engaged in the extolment of the king.Both the dynastic genealogy and the divinization of the king contributed to the strengthening of kingship, which in turn became the focal point of social integration. This is consistent with what we have learnt from the 089

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